CCDA-IV: J. Amber Leonard, John Hopkins University

Infrastructure will need to be upgraded across Africa to help it deal with the challenges of development and climate change, says J. Amber Leonard from the School of Advanced International Studies at John Hopkins University. But she stresses that these must be nationally appropriate, and involve people and communities in their design.

National governments should think about how they want to get such projects funded, she adds, which may involve approaching not just development banks, but also commercial banks, pension funds and insurers.